Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic organic matter by thermo-microbiological induction

in steemstem •  10 months ago 


Dear friends, followers and members! of the Steem platform.

On this occasion, I will share with the entire academic community of the Steemit ecosystem, scientific-technical information on ORGANIC DECOMPOSITION, specifically on thermo-microbiological induction using the Pyrolysis method, in the experimental procedure solid bio-products based on recalcitrant materials were obtained, using sheets of polyethylene in thermo-microbiological induction.

Introduction

In agroecology, the main known strategy to improve the mineral quality of solid Bio-products, among these; Organic fertilizers or compost is the application of thermophilic microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Bacillus stearothermophilus bacteria that, when added to the mixtures, improve the composting process by increasing the temperature and thereby mineralizing the recalcitrant organic fraction in plant residues (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) and at the same time eliminate pathogenic organisms from sources of environmental pollution such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella [1].

Fig. 2 Thermo-microbiological biotransformation under aerobic conditions of lignocellulosic organic materials. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

However, it is important to indicate the existence of other thermo-microbiological alternatives, which allow inducing the decomposition of lignified organic matter, among them, Pyrolysis whose biodegradation process can be used in the production of solid bio-products, by placing polyethylene sheets on the previously mixed organic materials, thus increasing the process temperature in the absence of oxygen.

Consequently, the purpose of this post is based on schematizing the organic biotransformation process and simultaneously presenting experimental results on Thermo-microbiological Induction through Pyrolysis, through the use of polyethylene sheets on the production cells in solid bio-products, based on recalcitrant materials.

Pyrolysis

From the biological point of view, Pyrolysis is understood as the process of chemical decomposition of mainly lignocellulosic organic materials, through conditions of high temperatures and in anaerobic media (absence of oxygen) [3].

Fig. 3 Wood sawdust as a lignocellulosic organic source. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Pyrolytic biotransformation

Pyrolysis of plant biomass, is a comparatively new anaerobic technique in opposition to aerobic processes traditionally used for the transformation of organic matter, to soluble substances useful for the growth of cultivated plant species, pyrolysis arises as an alternative method where the temperature variable in certain phases of the process, in order to recycle or reuse the mineral content present in plant residues subject to degradation and mineralization typical of the production of solid bio-products.

The process of pyrolytic biotransformation of plant residues is optimized by placing sheets or bags of polyethylene on the pile of biodegraded materials, this to generate heat and prevent the entry of oxygen, triggering microbiological activities of anaerobic methane-producing organisms (CH4), humic acids, fulvic acids and nutritional substances generally intended as biofertilizers in organic farming [2].

Fig. 4 Thermo-microbiological biotransformation under anaerobic conditions of lignocellulosic organic materials. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Pyrolytic technology

Pyrolytic Bio-Production Method

In order to socialize pyrolytic technological elements related to the degradation, mineralization and stabilization of recalcitrant organic materials, in this segment of the post, experimental procedures executed in the composting area of the Botanical Garden of the National Experimental University of the Lake, located in the municipality of Colón, Santa Bárbara, Zulia state - Venezuela.

Incubation area

To start the pyrolytic biotransformation process, an incubation area must be installed, where the solid Bio-products will be produced; A. With thermo-microbiological induction (polyethylene bags on batteries), B. Without thermo-microbiological induction, it is recommended to allocate an area of approximately 12 m2, in terms of mixtures in batteries, [4] it is advisable to add the following materials; Wood sawdust 10 k., E. crassipes 10 k., Bovine manure 5 k and Fresh land 5 k.

Fig. 5 Formation of the composting piles, by adding raw material based on wood sawdust, biomass of E. crassipes, bovine manure and fresh soil. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Thermo-microbiological induction

Pyrolysis as a biodegradation process, consists of generating thermo-microbiological conditions in the batteries to be composted, for this purpose the thermophilic phase is completed, [6] it is proposed that four (04) high density polyethylene bags and black color be placed on week four mixtures obtained, this to maintain temperatures between 40 and 60 ° C for two (02) additional weeks at the end of the aerobic thermophilic cycle, and then remove the polyethylene bags in week six (06), thereby allowing the rest and maturation of solid bio-products.

Fig. 6 Thermo-microbiological induction by using high density polyethylene bags and black color on the mixtures obtained. Author: @lupafilotaxia.

Physicochemical determinations

To know the values of stability and nutritional quality of the solid Bio-products obtained by thermo-microbiological induction, it is advisable to perform physical-chemical analyzes of; pH, humidity, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, following the laboratory methodologies established in TMECC 2002.

Phytotoxicity bioassays

To determine the maturity and agronomic viability of the Solid Bio-products produced by Pyrolysis, phytotoxicity tests must be carried out by means of germination bioassays, using Solanaceae seeds as indicator species and recording the germination percentages in a determined period of time [5].

Thermo-microbiological efficiency results

To check the thermo-microbiological efficiency, I will share with you all experimental data that indicate the effect of Pyrolysis, to accelerate the process of degradation, stabilization and mineralization of solid Bio-products based on recalcitrant materials, an aspect that demonstrates their technical feasibility, to promote mineral quality in the composting process, according to the physical-chemical assessment (table 1) [4].

Table. 1 Physical-chemical determination of solid bio-products subjected to thermo-microbiological induction [4].

Parameter
Bio-product / With thermo-microbiological induction
Bio-product / Without thermo-microbiological induction
pH
>7,5
>7,5
Moisture
29,1%
26,3%
Total nitrogen
3,05 %
3,82 %
Match
1,34%
1,22%
Potassium
0,91%
0,96

With regard to phytotoxicity, solid bio-products with thermo-microbiological induction can reach germination percentages greater than 85% (table 2) [4].

Table. 2 Agronomic viability of solid bio-products subjected to thermo-microbiological induction, germination percentages are indicated at 28 days [4].

Species
Bio-product / With thermo-microbiological induction
Bio-product / Without thermo-microbiological induction
C. chínense
93%
89%
C. annuum
89%
87%
S. esculentum
86%
86%

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS PUBLICATION


  • The socialized elements in the post reveal that Pyrolysis as an alternative agroecology technique accelerates the process of degradation, stabilization and mineralization in solid bio-products obtained by mixing residues rich in lignocellulosic organic materials such as wood sawdust, and demonstrates the agronomic viability that present these Bio-products subjected to thermo-microbiological actions, to promote the growth of plant embryos, since no phytotoxic effects are found in bioassays carried out with Solanaceae taxa species.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES CONSULTED AND CITED:


[1] Biddlestone A., Gray K., and Day C. Composting and straw decomposition. In: Environmental Biotechnology (Eds Forster C., and Wase A. Ellis Horwood Limited Publishers, Chichester, Engalnd, 1987;135–175.

[2] Fergus C. Thermophilic and thermotolerant molds and actinomycetes of mushroom compost during peak heating. Mycologia. 1964;56:267–284.

[3] Lillian F. Procesos microbianos. Editorial de la Fundación Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto Argentina. 1999; 332.

[4] Paz L., Ramírez J., Peñaloza T. Compost a base de las plantas acuáticas (Eichhornia crassipes L y Limnocharis flava L.) y su efecto en el pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.). TG – UNESUR. 2012;69.

[5] Rodríguez J., Marcano A., y Montaño N. Caracterización química del composte nutribora y su uso combinado con un fertilizante comercial en el cultivo de tomate. Interciencia. 2004;29:005:267- 273.

[6] Schulze K. Continuous thermophilic composting. Appl. Microbiol, 1962;110:108–122.

[7] TMECC. Test Methods for the Examination of Composting and Compost. USDA. The Composting Council Research and Education Foundation. 2002.


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The videos and photos are the property of the author @lupafilotaxia, and were taken with a digital camera Model Samsung HD 5X Touch Screen.

All the designs of images and graphic figures were made by the author @lupafilotaxia, through the Office Power Point 2017 program.

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Very nice post, thanks for this!

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